Chinese Mythology – Cosmic Deities


Chinese mythology is filled with various cosmic deities. Among these are Pengzu, Yinyanggong, Sheji, and Xiwangmu. These deities are believed to protect the countryside from natural disasters. They are the guardians of both cultivated and wild areas. Each god has its role in society, and each has its unique story.

  1. Penzu
  2. Yinyanggong
  3. Xiwangmu
  4. Shangdi Shang Di
  5. Wenshu


The Pengzu cosmic deity is a mythical figure in Chinese culture. The legend says he lived for eight hundred and thirty-four years during the Shang dynasty. This long life is considered exceptional in ancient China, where one year lasted for sixty days. This makes him a significantly older man, although it is not clear what his exact age was. Some say he was over a hundred years old, while others believe he was close to 400. It is thought that he lived so long because his name was accidentally left off the list of dead souls in heaven.

The God of Happiness is often depicted wearing lucky red clothes. His star is the planet Jupiter, which is a good luck sign. He is also associated with longevity and prosperity. He is often depicted holding a walking stick and may be accompanied by a long-lived bird crane.


Yinyanggong is a Taoist deity who is associated with the art of weaving. She is often called the Queen Mother of the West and often helps the gods of the Underworld. Her image is one of harmony, and she is considered the source of everything.

She is the daughter of Emperor Yao, one of the Three Sovereigns or Five Emperors. She represents the strength and power of motherhood. The Old Man Under the Moon (Yie Lao), a god of love, is another enduring Chinese deity. In his depiction, he wears red bands on his legs.

In addition to Yinyanggong, the name “Di” also means “all-under-Heaven.” The word Tian is usually translated as “Heaven,” although some scholars trace it back to a squared celestial pole.

Another deity in Chinese belief is Tianhou, the Mother of the Great Chariot. She is worshipped as the mother of the Big Dipper constellation, which consists of nine stars – seven visible and two invisible. In addition to her motherhood, she is the consort of Shangdi, also known as Doufu.

Another Chinese deity is Huangdi or the Yellow Emperor with Four Faces. According to Chinese mythology, Huangdi was born as a virgin. Her mother, Fubao, was struck by lightning from the Big Dipper, and she later gave birth to her son. Huangdi is also regarded as the founder of the Huaxia civilization. Han Chinese identify themselves as descendants of Huangdi and Yandi.


In the Chinese religion, the Xiwangmu cosmic deity is the ruler of the elements. She controls the yin and yang in the universe and the cauldron of creation. She also holds life and death and is associated with the afterlife. Her shamanic form has tiger teeth, a leopard tail, and whiskers.

She is one of the most influential and ancient goddesses in Chinese mythology. Once a wild demon, she repented and became a goddess, ruling over life and death. She is also known as the Queen Mother of the West and one of the Chinese pantheon’s oldest goddesses.

The Xiwangmu is the only deity in the Chinese pantheon with direct communication ability with heaven and earth. She possesses a peach tree, which she uses as a mediator between heaven and earth. The Xiwangmu’s Peachtree is also the symbol of emperorship, a divine right claimed by the first emperors.

The Xiwangmu is considered a powerful goddess and a personification of Tao, the Chinese philosophy. Her origins are unknown, but she represents the axis Mundi. She is a cosmic weaver. Her mystical presence is reflected in the many Great Mother myths.

The Xiwangmu is portrayed on a mountain with various chimeric animals around her. She is accompanied by staff and three birds. She is believed to be the goddess of fertility. The three birds in her image are supposed to feed the goddess and serve her food. Shamanic spirits and emissaries also surround her.

Chinese mythology has many gods. Some deities emerged later than others, but they all are essential to the Chinese people.

Shangdi Shang Di

Shangdi is a high god in the Chinese religion. His name is derived from two Chinese characters – Huangdi, the name of the great Yellow Emperor of deep Chinese antiquity, and di, the clan ancestor. In other languages, Shangdi means “emperor above” or “Lord on high,” but in Chinese, the word means “Supreme God.” Shangdi is considered one of several ancestors and is thus a deity with no kin.

Shang Di was seen as the pole star of the heavens and recognized as the highest spirit by Shang and Zhou. The Chinese understood celestial bodies as manifestations of the spiritual force and identified patterns of time as visible in the heavenly bodies. These patterns were also revealed in astronomical signs, including the tian ming (or tiger’s eye sign). The Zhou Dynasty was founded during the reign of Wu.

According to Chinese scriptures, Shangdi is the Creator, having created all life and humanity. He also gave all life the power to reproduce. This god is eternal and extends his love to his creation. The goodness of Shangdi cannot be measured. This view is consistent with Genesis Chapters 1 and 2.

The earliest mention of Shangdi dates back to the Shang dynasty in the 2nd millennium BCE, but he was likely worshipped much earlier. In ancient China, people prayed to Shangdi, asking for help with earthly matters. They also used divination, mainly using oracle bones and the talents of prophets and oracles.

Ancient Chinese leaders were called ‘Tianzi,’ which means “son of Heaven” in Chinese. Shangdi is a supreme deity in the heavens and presides over the order of human affairs. Throughout the ancient world, this idea of a supreme god was widespread. For example, the Egyptian ma’at and the Indo-Aryan RTA possessed this belief.


The Wenshu cosmic deity is a Buddhist god. The earliest records of the Wenshu are from the Tang Dynasty (618-907). The Wenshu Monastery was founded in this region. Its founder, Cidu, was a very accomplished Buddhist monk. He lived an ascetic life at the monastery for several years. One day, while Cidu was being cremated, he saw the statue of Wensum appear in flames. It was then that the monastery became known as the Wenshu Monastery.

In Chinese culture, the Wenshu is considered a deity of wisdom. In Chinese literature, he is usually depicted riding a lion or wielding a sword. He is associated with the medicinal Buddha Yao Shi Fo and Mount Wutai. His story is also a part of Chinese mythology. He is a crucial character in Chinese literature, and his mystical powers are legendary.

Other important figures in Chinese mythology include Pan Gu, a mythical creator of the world. According to Chinese mythology, he separated Yin and Yang and raised the sky above the earth. His body was then turned into the elements later worshiped by the ancient Chinese.

In Chinese mythology, the Wenshu is the third son of Li Jing, a military commander. His mother, Nezha, bore him for 42 months. He later committed suicide, but his mother miraculously resurrected him so that he could join the Zhou forces.

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Chinese Mythology – Cosmic Deities
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