Chinese Mythology – The Deity of the Sun


In Chinese mythology, the Sun is represented as the “Star Lord of the Solar Palace,” also known as the Tai Yang Gong. Other names for the Deity of the Sun include Hou Yi, Chang’e, and Xumi Siyu Jing. In some cultures, these deities are worshiped alongside the Star Lord of the Lunar Palace.

  1. Chang’e
  2. Xumi Siyu Jing
  3. Suryaprabha


Chang’e is one of the most important deities in Chinese mythology. She is known for her beauty, grace, intelligence, and self-sacrifice. Her most famous myth involves drinking an elixir that will grant her immortality, and then floating up to the moon. This myth also teaches us about the importance of service and the connection between the moon and the earth.

Chang’e is the Chinese Goddess of Longevity. Her story is also the origin of the Mid-Autumn Festival. In a distant past, a beautiful woman called Chang’e was living on Earth. The earth was scorched by ten suns, and her husband shot down nine of them with his arrows. In return, he was granted two elixirs that would grant immortality. The suns were scared of the elixir, and they left the goddess alone.

The moon is the closest planet to the earth. Its energy is very important to humans, as it is the source of all life. During the Mid-Autumn Festival, people celebrate the moon. This deity was once worshipped in heaven and was then banished to Earth by the Jade Emperor.

In addition to being the Chinese solar deity, Hou Yi was the best archer in the world and shot nine of the ten suns. The goddess Western Queen gave him an elixir that could grant him immortality, but he refused to share it with his wife. Therefore, he hid the elixir under his bed. His wife then planned to steal it from him.

Chang’e’s origin is mythical. She was married to a man named Houyi. The couple had a son, but their son did not live long enough to become a god. They later divorced and Chang’e fled to the moon. After the marriage, Chang’e decided to move to the moon as the moon goddess.

The myth of Chang’e has its origins in the 5th century BC. According to the Guizang book, Chang’e stole the elixir of immortality from Xi Wang Mu, Queen Mother of the West. Chang’e then flew to the moon and became the spirit of the moon.

There are four Chinese lunar probes named after Chang’e. The myth of Chang’e has been used to inspire astronauts to reach the moon. Even the astronauts on the 1969 Moon landing mission were told about the lunar goddess during the mission. They were asked to keep a lookout for her “bunny girl.”

The story of Chang’e’s creation is similar to that of Hou Yi. The suns were once ten and the Jade Emperor commanded them to shine only one at a time. Hence, the suns were not able to shine together. Consequently, the earth was scorched and the people suffered.

The tale of Chang’e has many sides and has inspired many pop culture stories. In fact, Chang’e has even made an appearance in the popular manga Sailor Moon. Her story is even featured in the TV adaptation of Wu Cheng’en’s novel Journey to the West. Chang’e did not get to the moon on her first try, but later he was allowed to live on the moon. This tale was also retold in the novel An Arrow to the Moon by Emily R. X. Pan.

Xumi Siyu Jing

The Chinese solar deity Xumi Siju Jing, also known as Xihe, was the mother of ten suns that nearly destroyed the Earth in ancient times. Her name is composed of the ancient surname xi and the character he, which means peaceful and harmonious. She is also the first wife of the emperor Di Jun and the moon goddess Changxi, who gave birth to twelve moons.

It is believed that the sun god was not a national deity. He traveled through Central Asia and China, changing his dress and appearance. His iconography was preserved in later iconographic manuals, including the Cheng Puti Ji. The Sun god, or Xumi, was a Bodhisattva who was depicted in chariots. Chinese Buddhists did not confuse the sun god with other gods. In fact, Xumi Siyu Jing was traditionally considered an apocryphal sutra, but it may have survived in other forms.

Another Chinese solar deity is Shen Nong, who is often associated with the Sun. According to legend, he ate herbs thousands of years ago. The place where he ate these herbs is called Shen Nong Jia. Another mythical figure is Xiao, a mountain spirit. Another is Xing Tian, a headless giant decapitated by the Yellow Emperor. His face resides in his torso. He is also depicted with a hammer.

The Sun god is regarded as a very important deity in China. It is believed that human beings can obtain rebirth in his palace by merit. Three sutras talk about this. Among others, these sutras mention that human beings should sacrifice alms to shramanas, provide alms for the poor, and be without regret. However, there is no requirement to worship the sun god.

Xumi Siyu Jing’s iconography varies considerably from region to region, but there is a clear trend. In most of the kizil cave temples, the sun god is depicted as a frontal chariot god. These images were also found throughout Eurasia, from the Mediterranean to the Iranian plateau. In Central Asia, they were associated with Buddhism. Most of these images are fragments, though.

Pangu first appeared in literature around 200 C.E. and is considered the first sentient being. The story of Pangu’s creation states that he emerged from an egg after 18,000 years and separated the two Yin and Yang elements with his great axe. The Yin side fell, forming Earth, while the Yang side rose up and formed the Heavens. In addition, he was the first deity to create the world, forming the Five Great Mountains.

In addition to his role in creation, Xumi Siyu Jing is also revered as a protector of humans. In fact, he helped protect humans from floods and other disasters. His belief in willpower and the power of the universe is also well documented in myths.


The Chinese solar deity Suryaprabhas embodies the sun and serves as a bodhisattva, or teacher of the Buddha. The solar deity is often depicted with the other bodhisattva Candraprabha, who serves as Suryaprabha’s assistant. Both are recognized as devas in mainland Asia. They are also often depicted wearing jewelry and other decorative accessories.

The solar god lives a life of pleasure, lasting around 500 years. He is said to have no regrets. Although his life is very pleasurable, it is a small one in comparison to the other heavenly realms. According to Hindu and Chinese mythology, ten suns are present in the sky, and they are brothers. As such, they should have emerged one by one, but instead played around and made the earth too hot for anything to grow. A hero named Hou Yi was able to shoot down nine of them with a bow, and another story says that a magical dog in heaven ate a piece of the sun.

In Chinese mythology, the sun god is called Xihe, which means “mother of the ten suns.” In ancient times, the ten suns almost destroyed the Earth. The name “Xihe” is derived from the ancient surname xi, which means harmonious and gentle. She was the first wife of the emperor Di Jun, and was married to the moon goddess Changxi, who gave birth to the twelve moons.

In the Chinese tradition, Surya is often depicted in the form of a Bodhisattva. This is contrary to the majority of solar deity images of the same period. Most images of the sun god were dressed as Indo-Scythian kings. In this way, it is possible that the sun god’s iconography was influenced by both religious traditions.

There are many other representations of the Chinese solar deity. Some of the most well-known images are of the sun god seated on a horse, with its forebody in front of it. Other images of the sun god include his two companions, the moon god and the wind god.

Despite this, not many textual documents from Central Asia have survived. In Central Asia, the sun god was regarded as a general sun god and localized. As a result, the sun god iconography often changed to suit local culture. This is evident in the Kushan costume and the Central Asian armor, as well as the Fuxi robe.

Suryaprabha is another example of a sun god. The Chinese sun god is called Xihe. He is said to be a descendant of Surya. In the Mahabharata, he is the son of the Pandava mother Kunti and Surya. In Hindu mythology, he is married to the goddess Ranaadeh. The goddess is also worshiped in Gujarat. His chariot driver is named Aruna. The redness accompanying sunrise is also said to be accompanied by the solar deity.

In Northern India, the sun god’s cult is associated with Iranian influence. The Iranians who migrated to Northern India worshiped the anthropomorphic sun god Mihira. The first representations of the sun god in the Buddhist context are found in reliefs at Bodh Gaya. This iconography was later incorporated into the canon iconography of Surya. Some scholars believe that the sun god iconography derived from Western models, whereas others attribute it to Parthian influence.

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Chinese Mythology – The Deity of the Sun
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